Sugarcane

Egypt


Sugarcane Plant

 

Sugarcane is a C-4 plant grown for 12+ months.  Therefore, sugarcane produces higher yields of sugar than beets, but cane is a tropical crop and cannot be grown in many areas. The sugarcane is the basic sugar crop in the tropical zone (30 NL to 30  SL).

                                  

                               Return to Top

 

The speed of transferred Sugar

 

  • The speed of transferred Sugar from leaves to storage in stems is 2.5-4 cm/minute
  • This speed and its storage affect atmosphere.
  • The best temperature to transfer sugar is 35 C.
  • No sugar can be transferred at 5 C.

Source :Bulletin No 440 (1998). Sugarcane . ed. by Agricultural Research Center,  Egypt,  (in Arabic).

                                                  Retrun to Top

Sugarcane as a source of energy:

 

             Sugarcane plant is considered the most efficient plant with regards to receiving and storing solar energy, then converting it into chemical energy in the form of organic materials or substance i.e., (sugar and fibers) per time and area unites. It is four times as efficiency as any other tropical plant concerning the storage of dry matter, (where sugarbeet efficiency is twice as much as any of the temperate zone plants in this regard) .

 

Area of land required for the production of million Kilo Calory

 

 

Crop

Area (Faddan =.42 Hectar)

Rate

Sugarcane

0.17

1.00

Potatoes

0.49

2.88

Maize

0.94

5.53

Sorghum

1.25

7.35

 

Farouk Afifi (1988). Sugar crops and sugar production in Egypt and the world.  Prepared by the Central Council for Sugar Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation 70 pp

                                                    Return to Top

The average yield of sugarcane in the World

 

The average yield of sugarcane in the world is around 60 metric tons/ha, while India and Egypt are getting around 66 tons and 105 tons/has, respectively. Egypt with highest cane yield in the world is getting about 142 per cent high-yield than Pakistan. India with almost similar soil and climatic conditions is obtaining about 53 per cent higher cane yield than Pakistan.

http://www.pakissan.com/english/allabout/crop/sugarcane.shtml

                                             Retrun to Top

Types of Sugarcane according to their physical and chemical characteristics.

 

Sugarcane varieties can be placed into one of three categories according to their physical and chemical characteristics.

      1- Chewing canes: contain fibers that stick together when chewed, making it easier to spit out the pulp once the sugary juice has been consumed. e.i., Yellow Gal; CP57-603; CP80-1837; CP80-1907; NG57-258; White Transparent.

     2- Crystal canes (typically commercial varieties) must contain a high percentage of sucrose, since this is the sugar molecule that easily forms into crystals when concentrated during a heating and evaporation process. e.i. Any commercial variety from south Florida or Louisiana. Information on these varieties may be found in the UF/IFAS sugarcane handbook, online at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/TOPIC_Sugarcane_Varieties

 

      3-  Syrup canes contain less sucrose than crystal canes, but have additional kinds of sugar molecules which resist crystallization, so the juice can be concentrated into syrup. "Backyard sugarcane" for hobby production is grown on farms ranging from a fraction of an acre to 10 or 20 acres and usually consists of either chewing varieties or syrup varieties. Most sugarcane for syrup production is grown in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and north Florida, a region that is known as the "sugarcane syrup belt". e.i.  CP36-111; CP52-48; CP67-500; Louisiana Ribbon; Louisiana Purple; Louisiana Striped; POJ2878; Cayana.

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SC052

Return to Top                                                       

Flower of Sugarcane

 

  • Sugarcane plumes are the flowers and seed heads of the cane plant.
  • Each plume consists of several thousand tiny flowers, each flower capable of producing one seed.
  • The cool winter weather in Florida ordinarily prevents development of the seeds.
  • During breeding for variety development, special precautions are taken in order to produce viable seed.

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/SC032

 

                                   Return to Top

Moisture solar energy

 

  • Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or subtropical climate, with a minimum of 600 mm (24 in) of annual moisture. It is one of the most efficient photosynthesizers in the plant kingdom, able to convert up to 2 percent of incident solar energy into biomass.
  • In prime growing regions, such as Hawaii, sugarcane can produce 20 kg for each square meter exposed to the sun.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugarcane

 

                                                 Return to Top

Age of sugarcane crop:

 

                 The maturing/harvesting age of sugarcane crop in most of the sugarcane growing countries are more than a year (15-24 months) .

Country

Age of Sugarcane (Months)

Pakistan

10-12

Hawaii

18-24

Java (Indonesia)

12-15

Mauritius

14-20

Australia

20-25

South Africa

22-24

Philippines

11-14

Cuba

12-15

India 

10-12  

Egypt

10-12

http://www.pakissan.com/english/allabout/crop/sugarcane.shtml

Return to Top

The average yield of sugarcane in the World

 

The average yield of sugarcane in the world is around 60 metric tons/ha, while India and Egypt are getting around 66 tons and 105 tons/has, respectively. Egypt with highest cane yield in the world is getting about 142 per cent high-yield than Pakistan. India with almost similar soil and climatic conditions is obtaining about 53 per cent higher cane yield than Pakistan.

http://www.pakissan.com/english/allabout/crop/sugarcane.shtml

Year

Population *

Production of Sugar  ** (1)

Consume of sugar ** (2)

Gap (1-2)**

Per capita consumption in kg

 

% self-sufficiency

1972

30.18

593

501

--

16.6

118.36

1973

31.38

555

562

7

17.9

98.75

1974

32.58

545

730

185

22.4

74.66

1975

33.78

522

763

241

22.6

68.41

1976

34.98

600

811

211

23.2

73.98

1977

36.18

619

820

201

22.7

75.49

1978

39.8

593

889

296

22.3

66.70

1979

40.9

623

996

373

24.4

62.55

1980

42.1

618

1115

497

26.5

55.43

1981

43.5

615

1187

572

27.3

51.81

1982

44.7

699

1260

561

28.2

55.48

1983

45.9

719

1320

601

28.8

54.47

1984

47.1

716

1370

654

29.1

52.26

1985

48.3

830

1440

610

29.8

57.64

1986

49.5

881

1470

589

29.7

59.93

1987

50.7

926

1500

574

29.6

61.73

1988

51.9

891

1576

685

30.4

56.54

1989

53.1

871

1492

621

28.1

58.38

1990

54.3

895

1575

680

29.0

56.83

1991

55.5

982

1716

734

30.9

57.23

1992

56.7

991

1534

543

27.1

64.60

1993

57.9

1005

1505

500

26.0

66.78

1994

59.1

1099

1550

451

26.2

70.90

1995

60.3

1131

1586

455

26.3

71.31

1996

61.5

1124

1574

450

25.6

71.41

1997

62.7

1131

1570

439

25.0

72.04

1998

63.9

1167

1600

433

25.0

72.94

1999

64.3

1242

1678

436

26.1

74.02

2000

65.5

1393

1800

407

27.5

77.39

2001

66.9

1405

1806

401

27.0

77.80

2002

68.3

1372

2000

628

29.3

68.60

2003

69.5

1285

2100

815

30.2

61.19

2004

70.7

1369

2200

831

31.1

62.23

2005

73.7

1497

2432

935

33.0

61.55

2006

75.1

1575

2533

958

33.7

62.18

2007

76.5

1757

2600

843

34.0

67.58

2008

 

2009

 

77.7 

 

79.254

1582

 

1610

2640 

 

2720

1058 

 

1110

34.0 

 

34.32

60.00

 

59.16

 

 

            Rate of increase population is 2% per year

            *= Million       **= 1000 Tons

Return to Top

 

 Egyptian Bulletin in Arabic

                                                 Return to Top

Astonishing properties of sugarcane

 

Prepared  by

Eid Moharb

Assistant Research, Genetic & Breeding  Department,

Sugar Crops Research Institute,

Agricultural Research Center.

 

  • The range of sugarcane height is between 50cm to ten meter.
  • Sugarcane cane can grow either in flooding soil or in drought condition.
  • The weight of sugarcane stalk is more than 2 kg. While, the weight of 2000 sugarcane seeds is one gram.
  • The number of chromosome is fix for each species either animals or plants. Chromosome number of sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum, lies between 40 to 128 chromosomes.
  • Any Zygote derives from both the mother (1 n) and the father (1 n). While, the embryo of Saccharum Spontaneum gains his chromosomes from the whole number of the chromosome of the female (2n) and half of the male (1 n).  Then, embryo of sugarcane has 3n.
  • Apical dominance is a phenomenon seen in plants, in which a central stem becomes dominant, growing faster than other stems and secreting hormones which inhibit stem growth below the terminal bud at the end of the apical stem. In contrast in Egypt (Matana Agricultural Research Station), We found this sugarcane stem, which is against Apical dominance phenomenon . This shape reveals the name of God in Arabic.

 

To get this information in Arbic , Click Here

Create a Free Website